A CRITICAL THINKER CONSIDERS THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING (see also CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING REASONING)

1) Purpose, Goal, Objective, or End in View

 

2) Question at Issue (or Problem to Be Solved)

 

3) Point of View, Frame of Reference, Perspective, Orientation

 

4) Assumptions (presuppositions, what is taken for granted)

 

5) Information (data, facts, observations, experiences)

 

6) Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles, models)

 

7) Interpretation & Inferences (conclusions, solutions)

 

8) Implications & Consequences (Where does this thinking lead? What will result if this thinking is turned into action?)

 

(Adapted from Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and Instructional Structures. Sonoma, California: 1998.)

Go to Universal Structures of Thought

Go to Critieria for Evaluating Reasoning