Environmental Science Practice Test

 

 

1)Political boundaries do not always match environmental boundaries. What does this mean for environmental protection in each country?

 

2)The local physical properties of the troposphere result in ________.

 

3)When excessive nutrient concentrations give rise to population explosions of toxic algae, a harmful ________ may occur.

 

4)How did the United States change its approach to environmental legislation in the period from the 1960s to 1980s? What allowed these changes in legislation to occur?

 

5)What is the value of biodiversity to humanity?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

6)Rule or guideline that directs individual, organizational, or societal behavior

Page Ref:

A)

B)

National Environmental Policy Act

policy

 

7)Define the term greenhouse gas. List four greenhouse gases that are anthropogenically produced and contribute to climate change.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

8)An individual layer of soil A) horizon

Page Ref:

B)O-horizon

 

9)When the TFR drops below 2.1, the size of the population will shrink, in the absence of immigration.

 

10)All of the land from which water drains into the river is called a ________.

 

11)Maintaining large herds of cattle can contribute to climate change.

 

12)Define and give examples of potential energy and kinetic energy.

 

13)Ants are K-strategists.

 

14)Human activity has affected every aspect of the nitrogen cycle. List the ways that humans have altered nitrogen starting with where nitrogen comes from, where it goes, and what it affects.

 

15)The innate reproductive capacity of a species is its ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

16)The study of how we decide to use resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them A)

B)

economics

centrally planned economies

Page Ref:

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

17)Flow of cold deep water toward the surface A) downwelling

Page Ref: B) upwelling

 

18)Define water pollution, point source, and non-point source pollution. Which of the two (point source or non-point source) is easier to identify? Which is easier to legislate? Which currently poses the greatest threat to freshwater?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

19)Information expressed with numbers A) quantitative data

Page Ref:

B)qualitative data

 

20)A(n) ________ is a fundamental type of matter, a chemical substance with a given set of properties, which cannot be broken down into substances with other properties.

 

21)The Great Lakes hold nearly 20% of the world's surface freshwater.

 

22)What components does E.O. Wilson include in his definition of biodiversity?

 

23)Paleontologists estimate that roughly 99% of all species that have ever lived are already extinct.

 

24)Acute exposure to chemical agents is more difficult to detect than chronic exposure.

 

25)________ informs consumers which brands use processes believed to be environmentally beneficial and which brands do not.

 

26)How is the precautionary principle used in environmental health?

 

27)Using the environmental properties discussed in this chapter (atmosphere, ocean currents, pollutants), give specific examples of why protecting the environment often requires international legislation.

 

28)Define the term tragedy of the commons.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

29)The lower layer of the atmosphere directly above the planet A) troposphere

Page Ref: B) tropopause

 

30)Deserts are not always hot; temperatures can vary widely across days and across seasons of the year.

 

31)Describe four ways that neoclassical economics contributes to environmental problems.

 

32)To date, no scientific studies have been conducted on the environmental and health effects of GM crops.

 

33)Describe the sixth mass extinction event, when it occurred, and the specific causes.

 

34)How did we increase food production during the 1960s?

 

35)Why is too much plant growth because of eutrophication in a freshwater system a problem?

 

36)The process by which new species are generated is ________.

 

37)Why is variety in crop plants important for "food security"? How is this threatened by GM food crops?

 

38)Differentiate between primary and secondary pollutants. Give examples of each.

 

39)Airborne transport of pesticides, ________ ________, can cause long distance transport of pesticides if pesticides are applied on windy days.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

40)The connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life

Page Ref:

A)

B)

biocentric

biophilia

 

41)Differentiate between the first and second laws of thermodynamics. What does the second law mean for living organisms?

 

42)Briefly, what was the lesson of the farmers featured in the central case, "No-till Agriculture in Southern Brazil"?

 

43)Any solid or liquid particles small enough to be carried aloft are pollutants grouped as ________.

 

44)Define the term environmental problem. Give an example of an environmental problem. Why does the perception of what is an environmental problem differ from time to time and country to country? Give an example of how the perception of an environmental problem may have changed.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

45)The variable that is manipulated A) independent variable

Page Ref:

B)dependent variable

 

46)Endemic species face relatively high risks of extinction.

 

47)Why is it important to understand our interactions with the environment? What will studying environmental science enable you to do?

 

48)The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines ________ as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.

 

49)What is the role of an environmental impact statement (EIS), who is required to prepare it, and what agency is in charge of the document?

 

50)Write the equation used to determine the growth rate or net change in a population size.

 

51)Toxicants, such as organic compounds, may build up within an animal, in a process termed ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

52)Circular air current with warm air rising to be replaced by cold air descending

Page Ref:

A)

B)

water vapor

convection current

 

53)Most ecosystems are limited by nitrogen as phosphorus is weathered from rock at relatively high rates.

 

54)What was the lesson of Easter Island?

 

55)Historically, the United States has been a pioneer in creating and enforcing environmental laws.

 

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56)All photosynthetic organisms are ________. A) transpiration

Page Ref: B) heterotrophs

57)The process by which water moves from lakes or ponds to the atmosphere C) evaporation

Page Ref: D) autotrophs

 

58)The impact of humans on the environment differs among countries. Define ecological footprint, and differentiate between the ecological footprint of a developing country and the United States. Support or challenge the statement "the population problem does not lie entirely with the developing world."

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

59)A pocket of relatively cold air occurring near the ground with warmer air above it

Page Ref:

A)

B)

stratosphere

thermal inversion

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

60)A positively charged particle A) electron

Page Ref:

B)proton

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

61)Specific environment in which an organism lives A) habitat

Page Ref: B) niche

 

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62)An area that supports an especially great diversity of species A) hotspot

Page Ref: B) ecocentric

 

63)Climax communities are transient, constantly relocating regardless of the stability of an environment.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

64)Differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species

Page Ref:

A)

B)

genetic diversity

keystone species

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

65)Predominant greenhouse gas produced by fossil fuels A) nitrogen dioxide

Page Ref: B) carbon dioxide

 

66)The field of ________ involves the study of good and bad, of right and wrong.

 

67)A concept called ________ has been used to manage fish by allowing maximal harvests of particular populations while keeping fish available for the future

 

68)There is no relationship between population growth rate and per-capita national income.

 

69)________ is the complex plant-supporting system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, air, water, nutrients, and microorganisms.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

70)The process by which one plant fertilizes another one of its own species

Page Ref:

A)

B)

pollination

deposition

 

71)What does it mean that we are "fishing down the food chain"?

 

72)Discuss the steps of environmental policy and give examples of how each is achieved.

 

73)Briefly, what is the cause of the sixth mass extinction event, and why is it a cause for concern?

 

74)Briefly describe speciation. How does allopatric speciation occur?

 

75)Discuss the three major eras of environmental law in the United States. What key events sparked or resulted from each one?

 

76)What is the value of genetic diversity for species?

 

77)Citizens that are involved with trying to change an elected official's mind are engaged in ________.

 

78)Coal use in the United States is too low to contribute to climate change.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

79)Highly-prized and protected top predator species, such as tigers, that incidentally provide other animals, plants, and fungi with protected habitats A)

B)

species

umbrella species

Page Ref:

 

80)The process of science, called the ________, is used to develop new information in scientific fields.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

81)Ranks in a feeding hierarchy are ________. A) energy steps

Page Ref: B) tropic levels

 

82)List the properties that determine the rate of degradation of toxicants.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

83)Numerical expression of the likelihood that a conclusion is true A) correlation

Page Ref: B) probability

 

84)What is a marine protected area?

 

85)Mutations are always detrimental to the survival of an organism.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

86)The loss of species from the planet A) extinction

Page Ref:

B)extirpation

 

87)Originally economists believed, as Adam Smith suggested, that the marketplace would behave as if guided by an invisible hand that ensured their actions would benefit society as a whole.

 

88)The majority of outdoor pollution comes from natural sources.

 

89)List the three most important factors determining climate. Briefly describe the role of each.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

90)The total fertility rate that keeps the size of a population stable A) replacement fertility

Page Ref: B) age structure

 

91)What is a demographic transition? What are its four stages? State why each stage is important and what the consequence is for population growth. Do all countries go through the demographic transition?

 

92)International law known as ________ arises from conventions or treaties that nations agree to enter into.

 

93)Explain the relationship between the size of the human population and carrying capacity. How does the carrying capacity as it applies to humans differ from its application to organisms that exist in natural ecosystems?

 

94)Most species extinction preceding the appearance of humans occurred one by one, at a rate that paleontologists refer to as the ________.

 

95)Data collected in an experiment can be used to support but not prove a hypothesis.

 

96)Define succession.

 

97)Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring brought the pesticide ________ to the attention of the public.

 

98)Discuss the role of the Energy Star Program in energy conservation.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

99)An atom that gains or looses and electron A) precipitation

Page Ref: B) organelles

100)Water returns to Earth's surface as ________. C) ion

Page Ref: D) prokaryotes

 

101)What is genetic engineering? Why has the use of genetically engineered crops become a major focus of scientific research and political debate? Describe the arguments on each side of the scientific and political debates.

 

102)What are ecosystem goods and ecosystem services? Give several examples of each. What are nonmarket values? Discuss how economists go about calculating these values.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

103)The degree of harm a substance can inflict A) toxicity

Page Ref: B) chronic

 

104)Explain how dose-response curves are developed and used to evaluate the effects of toxicants on human populations.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

105)Movement of individuals into a population A) emigration

Page Ref: B) immigration

 

106)Nutrients move though the environment in cycles called nutrient cycles, or ________ cycles.

 

107)Describe the contribution of Aldo Leopold to our understanding of humankind's link to the environment.

 

108)________ have been nicknamed the fourth branch of the government.

 

109)What factors determine whether a population of humans grows, shrinks, or remains stable?

 

110)Soils that are not inverted by plowing for agriculture are said to be ________ farming systems.

 

111)What three factors contribute to the "dead zone" in the waters off the Gulf of Mexico?

 

112)Increases in species diversity result from the process of ________ and decreases through ________.

 

113)The term ________ refers to the capture of animals not meant to be caught.

 

114)The artificial provision of water to support agriculture is known as ________.

 

115)All of the valuable processes that intact ecosystems provide for us free of charge are known as ________.

 

116)Globally, the rate of population growth is still increasing.

 

117)How have declines in fisheries been masked in recent years?

 

118)Humans have generated significant quantities of ________, harmful materials added to the atmosphere that can affect climate and/or damage organisms.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

119)The world's largest aquifer is the A) Okabogee aquifer

Page Ref:

B)Ogallala aquifer

 

120)Less than 25% of the world's people live on less than $2.00 per day.

 

121)Differentiate between exponential and logistic growth curves. Give examples of the conditions under which each would occur.

 

122)Ignoring human alterations to the landscape, what causes floods and what is their value ecologically?

 

123)What are external costs? Give examples.

 

124)Discuss the objectives and success of the Montreal Protocol.

 

125)Environmentalism is a scientific approach to understanding environmental problems.

 

126)What is biological diversity? Does it include specifically just organisms?

 

127)The process of nutrient enrichment, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation is known as ________.

 

128)The cross-section of soil as a whole, from the surface to the bedrock, is known as a ________.

 

129)Describe the use of biological control for battling pests.

 

130)The sum total of our surroundings, the ________ is impacted by living and nonliving things.

 

131)What are the basic concepts identified by the equilibrium theory of island biogeography? How do they apply to terrestrial ecosystems?

 

132)List the three major trophic levels in a food web. What types of organisms are found in each level? Where are the autotrophs and heterotrophs found? List the three levels in terms of importance in an ecosystem and why.

 

133)What is habitat selection, and how does it differ for different organisms?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

134)A group of populations of organisms that live in the same place at the same time

Page Ref:

A)

B)

community

weight pyramid

 

135)Into the mid-20th century it was common for coastal cities in the U.S. to dump trash into the ocean.

 

136)Differentiate between heterotroph and autotroph. Give an example of each.

 

137)Parasites that live outside their hosts are called ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

138)Number of individuals within a population per unit area A) population density

Page Ref: B) population size

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

139)Any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block flow A) dam

Page Ref: B) benthic

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

140)Maximum population size that a given environment can sustain A) carrying capacity

Page Ref: B) pre-industrial stage

 

141)An increase in Earth's average surface temperature is referred to as ________.

 

142)How can agricultural irrigation practices be altered to decrease loss of freshwater?

 

143)In developing countries, access to contraception decreases reproductive rates.

 

144)Automatic dishwashers use more water than washing dishes by hand.

 

145)Briefly, what is the consequence of unequal distribution of human populations?

 

146)Today almost 800 million people in developing countries do not have enough to eat.

 

147)Fossil fuels actually represent fossil organisms.

 

148)What are endocrine disruptors? What event led the scientific community and public to first appreciate that endocrine disruption could be altering the hormones of animals? What roles do hormones play and why is the interruption of hormones by endocrine disruption a problem for humans and other organisms?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

149)A measure of the density of suspended particles in a water supply A) hard water

Page Ref: B) turbidity

 

150)The stratospheric ozone layer is important for reducing the amount of UV radiation hitting the surface of the planet.

 

151)What two events caused human population size to increase? Describe each, briefly explaining the contributions that each made to human population growth including pros and cons of each.

 

152)What was the cause of the distortion in the sex ratio in China?

 

153)In economics how are future effects discounted and what danger is associated with this idea?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

154)A social system that converts resources into goods A) capitalist market economy

Page Ref: B) economy

 

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155)Average number of children born per female member of population over her lifetime.

Page Ref:

A)

B)

total fertility rate

mortality rate

 

156)List the steps of the scientific method and describe each briefly. Which steps are important to repeat? Why is this method important?

 

157)What was the green revolution? What practices were involved? What impact did it have on yield of food crops in developing countries? Discuss the impact of the green revolution on the environment.

 

158)The EPA reported that only 6% of Americans lived in counties where any one of the major pollutantscarbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, and leadreached unhealthy levels.

 

159)The systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it is called ________.

 

160)Prior to the 1960's environmental problems were handled with lawsuits rather than legislation.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

161)Average number of years that a person can expect to live from birth A) population density

Page Ref: B) life expectancy

 

162)Explain how biomagnification occurs.

 

163)Total fertility rate drops have been most noticeable in countries where women have gained access to ________ and ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

164)Smallest components of an element that maintain the chemical properties of that element

Page Ref:

A)

B)

atoms

isotopes

 

165)The best-known technological approach to increasing water supply by generating freshwater is ________, the removal of salt from seawater.

 

166)What are limiting factors and how do they determine the carrying capacity of a species? Is a carrying capacity a fixed entity?

 

167)Discuss the impacts that humans are having on the ocean ecosystems.

 

168)What remedies can be found for indoor pollution? Compare solutions for developed and developing countries.

 

169)Environmental problems were first discussed in the first century.

 

170)Discuss the difference between a manipulative experiment and a natural experiment.

 

171)The basic unit of organization in living organisms is the ________.

 

172)What determines which biome covers any particular portion of the planet?

 

173)The Tijuana watershed demonstrated a transboundary problem. Explain what this means, and then discuss the organizations that oversee international environmental law. Conventional and customary law are the basis of international law. How do they differ?

 

174)The study and practice of ________assesses environmental factors that influence human health and quality of life.

 

175)How does indoor pollution in developing countries differ from indoor pollution in developed countries?

 

176)A branching diagram or ________ can be used to illustrate a scientists' hypothesis as to how speciation took place.

 

177)Only 25% of the people on our planet use biological resources directly in traditional medicine.

 

178)Does environmental protection positively or negatively affect economics? How is the economist's view of the environment changing?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

179)Green house gas produced within the digestive tract of cattle A) relative humidity

Page Ref: B) methane

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

180)Chemicals that cause harm to unborn young inside a mother's body are called

Page Ref:

A)

B)

teratogens

mutagens

 

181)Some threats to human health are unavoidable because they are wholly natural and part of the natural environment.

 

182)What is the relationship between correlation and causation in scientific experimentation?

 

183)Marketable emissions permits can be bought, sold, and traded among polluters allowing industry to manage who is allowed to pollute.

 

184)Define the terms pest and weed. Why are these definitions subjective?

 

185)One in 10 people in the developing world is infected with intestinal worms, a waterborne pathogen.

 

186)What is the Endangered Species Act? Describe two of its successes and explain some of the current controversies surrounding it.

 

187)What is a subsidy? Describe the role of subsidies in natural resource management.

 

188)What lesson can be learned from the case of the Siberian Tiger in Russia?

 

189)The number of people facing water scarcity is expected to grow to at least 2.4 billion by 2025.

 

190)Environmental scientists attempting to estimate human carrying capacity have arrived at wildly differing numbers. What are these estimates, and why are they so dramatically different describe the factors that influenced these estimates.

 

191)Diversity generally increases as one approaches the equator. This pattern of variation is referred to as a ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

192)An organism that transfers a pathogen to a host A) vector

Page Ref: B) tumerous

 

193)An ecocentrist would view economics as the most important determinant in making environmental legislation.

 

194)What is the basic concept of sustainable agriculture?

 

195)List the six pollutants that are closely tracked by the U.S. EPA.

 

196)What are epidemiological studies, and what is their value?

 

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197)Water with high concentrations of calcium and magnesium irons A) soft water

Page Ref: B) hard water

 

198)What steps are involved with assessing risk for a chemical substance?

 

199)What is the lesson learned from the Monteverde rain forest?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

200)Stage of declining death rates due to high food production and medical care

Page Ref:

A)

B)

post-industrial stage

transitional stage

 

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201)A human-centered view of our relationship with the environment A) ecocentric

Page Ref: B) anthropocentric

 

202)List three methods currently used by scientists to study climate change.

 

203)Sixty-one percent of U.S. adults are technically overweight and 27% are obese.

 

204)What is the origin of energy for most living organisms, and what is the process by which organisms, such as plants, get it?

 

205)What is China's policy on population control? How is it enforced? Why was it initiated, and how is it controversial?

 

206)Give a brief overview of the carbon cycle. Include the source of carbon that enters ecosystems, how it moves through ecosystems, and where it is ultimately deposited. What part of this cycle is believed to contribute to global warming?

 

207)________ are the periodic rising and falling of the ocean's height at a given location due to the gravitational pull of the moon.

 

208)When water is used for agricultural irrigation and is not returned to the aquifer or surface water body that it was drawn on, this is ________ use.

 

209)Compare and contrast feedback loops. Give an example of each and how common each is in natural systems.

 

210)Food-growing practices that use no synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides but instead rely on biological approaches, such as composting and biocontrol, are termed ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

211)Toxicants that cause cancer A) carcinogens

Page Ref:

B)antigens

 

212)International efforts to restrict CFC production finally bore fruit in 1987 with the ________, a treaty signed by over 180 nations.

 

213)Describe two ways that salt can be removed from seawater.

 

214)A ________ is a widely accepted, well-tested explanation of one or more cause-and-effect relationship that has been rigorously tested.

 

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215)Specific rules based on more broadly written law passed by Congress A) treaties

Page Ref: B) regulation

 

216)The environmental impact of an individual or of a population can be expressed in terms of a(n) ________.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

217)An organism that contains DNA from another species A) profile

Page Ref: B) transgenic

218)The process in which material is removed from one place and transported to another by wind and water. C)

D)

waterlogging

erosion

Page Ref:

 

219)What is an adaptive trait?

 

220)How have artificially produced chemicals played a role in giving us the standard of living we enjoy today?

 

221)Feeding the world's population under the constraints of current land-use patterns means that we must increase the efficiency with which we produce food rather than the amount of land we farm.

 

222)What is the spatial relationship between the distribution of water and people?

 

223)Briefly describe the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Which of these processes are performed by autotrophs and which by heterotrophs?

 

224)Using the Three Gorges Dam on China's Yangtze River as an example, what are the benefits and costs associated with building dams?

 

225)Radon is a highly toxic radioactive gas that is introduced into homes by use of electrical power generated by nuclear power plants.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

226)Porous, spongelike layers of rock, sand, or gravel that are capable of holding water

Page Ref:

A)

B)

aqueduct

aquifer

 

227)Describe the United States' Dust Bowl and the response of the U.S. government.

 

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228)High exposure to a chemical over a short period of time A) acute

Page Ref: B) degree

 

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229)Stabilizes a population at its carrying capacity A) environmental resistance

Page Ref: B) exponential growth

 

230)Extinction is a relatively new phenomenon as it only results from impacts of humans on natural species.

 

231)Synthetic pesticides have been found in high concentrations in uninhabited polar regions.

 

232)What is risk assessment? What is the role of federal agencies in assessing risk? Explain how risk management combines science and other social factors.

 

233)The application of population ecology principles to the study of statistical change in human populations is the focus of the social science of ________ .

 

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234)The generation of new species A) species diversity

Page Ref:

B)speciation

 

235)Today, policymakers face the challenge of producing an adequate, reliable, and available food supply to all people at all times. This is a goal of ________.

 

236)The departure of individuals from a population is called ________.

 

237)How did contaminants impact reproduction in alligators in Florida lakes?

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

238)Alternating bands of different types of vegetation planted across a slope A) strip-cropping

Page Ref: B) aquaculture

 

239)How are the fields of ecology and economics related in their origin?

 

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240)Specific statements that can be directly and unequivocally tested A) prediction

Page Ref: B) hypothesis

 

241)Describe the formula that is used to represent the total impact of humans on the environment. The model in question results from the interaction of three factors. What are the three factors? Which of the three factors increase environmental impact and which decrease environmental impact by humans? What is the fourth factor that could be added to this formula?

 

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242)The oldest type of survival economy A) subsistence economy

Page Ref:

B)steady-state economy

 

243)What specific population characteristics do demographers study?

 

244)A(n) ________ occurs when an ancestral species gives rise to many species that fill empty niches, and each species adapts to its niche by natural selection.

 

245)There are only 50 naturally occurring elements.

 

246)What factors result in the biome-like patterns of specific aquatic systems?

 

247)Differentiate between renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Give examples of each.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

248)Early environmental laws that gave federal government the right to manage

Page Ref:

A)

B)

General Land Ordinances

Western Merit Law

 

249)Differentiate between the approaches of Pinchot and Muir in protection of the environment. Which is more practical considering the population growth of the last century?

 

250)Is extinction natural? Briefly, how has the extinction rate changed over the history of Earth? Why are extinction rates today different from in the past?

 

251)Relationships between organisms that live in close physical contract with one another are called ________.

 

252)The World Commission on Water in 1999 concluded that over half of the world's major rivers are depleted and polluted.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

253)Lands used for grazing livestock A) shelterbelts

Page Ref:

B)rangeland

 

254)________ is a scientific discipline devoted to understanding the factors, forces, and processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of biological diversity within and among ecosystems.

 

255)One of the landmark environmental events of the 1960s was the publication of ________ by Rachel Carson.

 

256)The extremely low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the "dead zone" represent a condition called ________.

 

257)Provide several reasons why our estimates of species numbers are incomplete.

 

258)Why is environmental science an interdisciplinary field?

 

259)Discuss the practices used by farmers to reduce the impacts of conventional cultivation on soils.

 

260)The major causes of species loss spell "HIPPO." What does each of these letters represent?

 

261)A(n) ________ is an activity designed to test the validity of a hypothesis; it involves manipulating ________ or conditions that can change.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

262)Marine habitats that occur between the ocean's surface and floor A) littoral

Page Ref: B) pelagic

 

263)Paleontologists calculate that the average time a species spends on earth is 1 to 10 million years.

 

264)The largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas production in the United States is ________, followed by ________.

 

265)The U.S. Geological Survey found that 80% of U.S. streams contain at least trace amounts of wastewater contaminants.

 

266)The majority of the oil polluting our oceans is from large spills.

 

267)What area does the field of environmental health cover? Differentiate between indoor and outdoor environmental health issues. Give examples of each.

 

268)List the four types of macromolecules essential to life. Briefly describe the structures of each and give two roles.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

269)The cumulative total of living things on Earth and the areas living things inhabit

Page Ref:

A)

B)

population

biosphere

 

270)What concept has traditional fisheries management been based on? What approach do scientists think would improve current management techniques?

 

271)Differentiate between environmental science and environmentalism. Define each term and explain how they are similar and how they differ.

 

272)The practice of planting vast areas with a single type of crop is known as ________ .

 

273)The term ________ describes a specific spot, such as a factory's smokestacks, where large quantities of pollution are discharged.

 

274)The science that examines the effects of chemicals on humans and wildlife, ________, has become increasingly important during the past century.

 

 

Answers

 

1)Countries are often dependent on each other for solving environmental problems, as in the case of pollution. Pollution that is a cause of concern for one country may have originated in another country. In such cases, international cooperation is required to correct the problem.

 

2)weather

 

3)algal bloom or red tide

 

4)The federal water pollution acts of the sixties and seventies was the first time that legislation was passed. Prior to that environmental problems had been addressed with lawsuits. Problems that came to national attention such as the burning of the Cuyahoga indicated that such legislation was needed. The environmental legislation passed at this time because there was evidence of environmental problems, people could visualize policies to deal with the problems, and the political climate was ripe for addressing problems and creating policy.

 

5)Students should include and expand on some of the following concepts. Biodiversity provides valuable ecosystem services free of charge. Biodiversity enhances food security. Biodiversity provides traditional medicines and high-tech pharmaceutical products. Biodiversity provides economic benefits through tourism and recreation. People value and seek out connections with nature.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

6)Rule or guideline that directs individual, organizational, or societal behavior

Page Ref:

A)

B)

National Environmental Policy Act

policy

 

7)Greenhouse gases effectively absorb infrared radiation released by Earth's surface and later warm that surface by emitting energy. Examples include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, etc.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

8)An individual layer of soil A) horizon

Page Ref:

B)O-horizon

 

9)TRUE

 

10)watershed

 

11)TRUE

 

12)Potential energy is the energy of position, and kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Water behind a dam is potential energy that becomes kinetic energy when the dam breaks and water is released.

 

13)FALSE

 

14)Students should discuss some of the following: Historically, nitrogen fixation was a bottleneck, a step that limited the flow of nitrogen through the environment. But, the development of synthetic nitrogen-based fertilizers has allowed us to fix nitrogen on a massive scale and accelerate its movement into other reservoirs within the cycle. When we burn forests and fields, we force nitrogen from the soil into the atmosphere. Humans have spent a great deal of money on producing and distributing nitrogen; doubled the amount of nitrogen available for use by plants; and increased the amount of nitrogen that makes its way into waterways, resulting in alterations to terrestrial community composition and causing eutrophication in water systems. We have also increased the distribution of nitrogen into systems through pollution in the atmosphere that comes down as rain.

 

15)biotic potential

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

16)The study of how we decide to use resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them A)

B)

economics

centrally planned economies

Page Ref:

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

17)Flow of cold deep water toward the surface A) downwelling

Page Ref: B) upwelling

 

18)The term "pollution" describes any matter or energy released into the environment, whether from human activity or from natural sources, that causes undesirable impacts on the health and well-being of humans or other organisms. Water pollution can be emitted from point-sources single locations such as a pipe from a factory or can consist of non-point source pollution, arising from multiple cumulative inputs over larger areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential neighborhoods. Point sources are easy to identify but sometimes difficult to regulate, especially if owners or supporters of industrial plants lobby politicians to pressure agencies not to enforce regulations. Non-point source pollution is difficult to pinpoint in terms of source and presents a different type of societal challenge, requiring public education and the willingness of citizens to change certain behaviors. It is non-point source pollution that poses the greatest threat to water quality in the United States, according to the EPA. Many common activities give rise to non-point source water pollution, including applying fertilizers and pesticides to lawns, applying salt to roads in winter, and changing automobile oil.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

19)Information expressed with numbers A) quantitative data

Page Ref:

B)qualitative data

 

20)element

 

21)TRUE

 

22)E.O. Wilson's definition includes the variety of organisms at all levels, from genetic variants, through arrays of species, genera, families, and higher taxonomic levels. It includes the variety of ecosystems, which comprise both the communities of organisms within a particular habitat and the physical conditions in which they live.

 

23)TRUE

 

24)FALSE

 

25)Ecolabeling

 

26)Substances, such as potential toxic substances, are assumed to be harmful until shown to be harmless.

 

27)Global circulation patterns in atmosphere and ocean mean that chemicals released into air or water are the problem of all nations, not just those releasing the chemicals. Global treaties are necessary to solve problems such as movement of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and acid rain across borders of adjacent countries.

 

28)The idea that unregulated environments that offer limited resources freely to the public are prone to degradation and resource depletion.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

29)The lower layer of the atmosphere directly above the planet A) troposphere

Page Ref: B) tropopause

 

30)TRUE

 

31)There are four ways that neoclassical economics contributes to environmental problems. First, the idea that resources are infinite is a problem. There is a belief that if we deplete a resource, it can be replenished by something else. This is not always the case. Second, long-term effects are discounted. Only short-term effects are estimated in costs, and long-term damage is less important, so the immediate harvest and use of resources often looks more profitable. Third, the idea that costs and benefits are internal to business transactions is not correct. There are externalities that affect the environment and ultimately human health. Lastly, neoclassical economies contribute to environmental problems by promoting growth as good. The traditional belief that growth is necessary for high employment and is key to maintaining social order is not good for the environment but more importantly may not be good for economics either.

 

32)FALSE

 

33)Most biologists believe that the Earth is currently in the throes of its sixth mass extinction event and we humans are the cause. The changes to Earth's environment by human population growth, resource use, and development have greatly altered conditions for many species, have driven many to extinction already, and are threatening countless more. The alteration and outright destruction of natural habitats, the hunting and harvesting of species, and the introduction of invasive species from one place to another have contributed to the threat to Earth's biodiversity.

 

34)We increased food production by devoting more energy to agriculture; planting and harvesting more frequently; increasing the use of irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticides; increasing the amount of agricultural land; and developing more productive varieties.

 

35)Algae that grow too rapidly can cover the water's surface, harming the deeper-water plants that depend on sunlight for survival.

 

36)speciation

 

37)Varieties contain genes that, through conventional breeding, might confer resistance to disease, pests, inbreeding, and other pressures that challenge modern agriculture. Monocultures of industrial agriculture place all our eggs in one basket, so that any single catastrophe could potentially wipe out multiple crops. Wild relatives contain genetic diversity that may have ready-made solutions to unforeseen problems. There is concern that accidental interbreeding of widespread commercial GM crops with local native crop varieties could eliminate local variants.

 

38)Primary pollutants, such as soot and carbon monoxide, are emitted into the troposphere in a form that is directly harmful to organisms and the environment. Secondary pollutants, such as photochemical smog and tropospheric ozone, are hazardous substances that are produced through a reaction of substances added to the atmosphere with chemicals normally found in the atmosphere.

 

39)pesticide drift

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

40)The connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life

Page Ref:

A)

B)

biocentric

biophilia

 

41)The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can change from one form to another; it cannot be created or lost. The total energy in the universe remains constant. The second law of thermodynamics states that the nature of energy will change from a more ordered state to a less ordered state. This means that organisms must consume energy to maintain structure and keep entropy at bay.

 

42)Eliminating plowing through zero-till farming reduces erosion and allows the soil to better support crop production.

 

43)particulate matter

 

44)An environmental problem is an undesirable change in the environment. An example would be decreased air quality caused by pollution in Los Angeles. Perceptions of an environmental problem vary through time and among people depending on what is considered undesirable and the awareness and understanding of the consequences of certain actions. The environmental problems resulting from DDT use are undesirable in this country and are the lesser of two evils in countries with severe malaria problems.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

45)The variable that is manipulated A) independent variable

Page Ref:

B)dependent variable

 

46)TRUE

 

47)We depend on the environment for air, water, food, shelter, and everything else. We are capable of modifying the environment whether we intend to or not. Understanding our interactions with and impacts on the environment is the essential first step towards devising solutions to environmental problems. Studying environmental science will give you the tools to evaluate information on environmental changes and think critically and creatively about possible actions to take in responding to those changes.

 

48)environmental justice

 

49)An environmental impact statement is required for any major federal action. It is a report of results from detailed studies that assess potential effects on the environment that would likely result from a development project or other action undertaken by the government. The Council on Environmental Quality is in charge of these documents.

 

50)Growth rate = (crude birth rate + immigration rate) - (crude death rate+ emigration rate).

 

51)bioaccumulation

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

52)Circular air current with warm air rising to be replaced by cold air descending

Page Ref:

A)

B)

water vapor

convection current

 

53)FALSE

 

54)Civilizations can crumble when population pressure overwhelms resource availability.

 

55)TRUE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

56)All photosynthetic organisms are ________. A) transpiration

Page Ref: B) heterotrophs

57)The process by which water moves from lakes or ponds to the atmosphere C) evaporation

Page Ref: D) autotrophs

 

58)An ecological footprint is the cumulative amount of land and water required to provide the raw materials the person or population consumes and to dispose of or recycle the waste that is produced. The ecological footprint of an average U.S. citizen is significantly larger than the average resident of a developing country. The population problem does not lie entirely with the developing world, as in the developed world consumption is rising faster than population, and some scientists have suggested that increasing consumption poses a larger environmental problem than increasing population. This is because while sooner or later an expanding population will run into its limits of growth, there is no theoretical limit to consumption. In the face of demand for luxury products and the all-too-human desire not only to use these products but to flaunt them as status symbols, consumption could conceivably rise without limits.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

59)A pocket of relatively cold air occurring near the ground with warmer air above it

Page Ref:

A)

B)

stratosphere

thermal inversion

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

60)A positively charged particle A) electron

Page Ref:

B)proton

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

61)Specific environment in which an organism lives A) habitat

Page Ref: B) niche

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

62)An area that supports an especially great diversity of species A) hotspot

Page Ref: B) ecocentric

 

63)FALSE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

64)Differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species

Page Ref:

A)

B)

genetic diversity

keystone species

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

65)Predominant greenhouse gas produced by fossil fuels A) nitrogen dioxide

Page Ref: B) carbon dioxide

 

66)ethics

 

67)maximum sustainable yield

 

68)FALSE

 

69)soil

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

70)The process by which one plant fertilizes another one of its own species

Page Ref:

A)

B)

pollination

deposition

 

71)It means that the size of fish declines with higher rates of fishing and we are shifting from large, desirable species to smaller, less desirable ones.

 

72)a. Identify problemcuriosity, observation, record keeping, and awareness of our relationship with environment

b. Identify causefind source of problem

c. Envision solutionwhat changes might be required to eliminate problem

d. Get organizedorganizations are better able to achieve law

e. Gain access to political processlobbying, campaign contributions and revolving door all offer opportunities

f. Make lawprepare the bill and introduce and pass through the House of Representatives and the Senate

 

73)The sixth mass extinction event has been caused by human alterations to landscapes. It is a cause for concern because the current global extinction rate is more than 1,000 times greater than it would have been without human destruction of habitat.

 

74)When mutations occur in one population that are not passed to another population, speciation can occur if gene flow becomes restricted permanently between the two populations (i.e., they can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring). If a physical boundary such as a stream divides the two populations, restricting gene flow between them, and a speciation event occurs, this is termed allopatric speciation.

 

75)The first major era addressed public land management and encouraged western expansion. The Environmental policy reflected the public perception that western lands were practically infinite, uninhabited, and their natural resources inexhaustible.

 

The second era resulted from a change in the perception and government policy towards natural resources as population increases led to exploitation of natural resources. The end of this era saw the development of the national park system aimed at earmarking pieces of land for public use.

 

The third era was a response to address environmental pollution. Pollution policy was driven by new evidence, such as that revealed in Rachel Carson's Silent Spring and the burning of the Cuyahoga River, that focused attention on the country's poor standards in relation to the environment.

 

76)Species with more genetic diversity have better chances of surviving, because their built-in variation better enables them to cope with environmental change. Species with little genetic diversity are vulnerable to environmental change for which they are not genetically prepared. Species with depressed genetic diversity may also be more vulnerable to disease, and may suffer the effects of inbreeding, which occurs when parents that are too genetically similar mate and produce weak or defective offspring.

 

77)lobbying

 

78)FALSE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

79)Highly-prized and protected top predator species, such as tigers, that incidentally provide other animals, plants, and fungi with protected habitats A)

B)

species

umbrella species

Page Ref:

 

80)scientific method

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

81)Ranks in a feeding hierarchy are ________. A) energy steps

Page Ref: B) tropic levels

 

82)Temperature, moisture, sun exposure, and chemistry of toxicant

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

83)Numerical expression of the likelihood that a conclusion is true A) correlation

Page Ref: B) probability

 

84)It is a term to describe any portion of the ocean that is protected from some human activities but may be open to others.

 

85)FALSE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

86)The loss of species from the planet A) extinction

Page Ref:

B)extirpation

 

87)TRUE

 

88)TRUE

 

89)Sun creates light and warmth; atmosphere insulates the planet; and oceans store and transport heat and moisture.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

90)The total fertility rate that keeps the size of a population stable A) replacement fertility

Page Ref: B) age structure

 

91)A demographic transition is a theoretic model of economic and cultural change proposed in the 1940s and 1950s to explain the declining death rates and birth rates that occurred in Western nations as they experienced industrialization.

 

The first stage is a stable pre-industrial stage of high birth and death rates.

 

The second stage is a transitional stage characterized by declining death rates due to increased food production and improved medical care. Birth rates are still high as citizens have not yet grown used to the new economic and social conditions so there is a surge in population growth.

 

The third stage is the industrial stage. Widespread industrialization creates opportunities for employment outside the home. Children become less valuable. Birth rates begin to fall.

 

The last stage is a stable post-industrial stage of low birth and death rates.

 

All countries do not go through the demographic transition. Transition may be different in developing countries as they industrialize or in countries that place greater value on childbirth or grant women fewer freedoms. Resources may also limit the ability to attain an equal standard of living in all countries.

 

92)Conventional Law

 

93)Organisms in ecosystems are limited by carrying capacity, which is the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain. Some believe that the idea of carrying capacity doesn't apply to the human world because humans aren't passive with respect to their environment. Human beings create resources, find potential stuff, and human intelligence turns it into resources. Environmental scientists argue that not all resources are replaceable by others when depleted. The problem with human population growth is that higher population sizes will decrease the quality of life.

 

94)background rate of extinction

 

95)TRUE

 

96)Succession is the regular, predictable, and quantifiable changes in community composition over time.

 

97)DDT

 

98)The Energy Star Program promoting energy conservation was started by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The program rates appliances for energy efficiency, allowing consumers to buy more energy-efficient appliances.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

99)An atom that gains or looses and electron A) precipitation

Page Ref: B) organelles

100)Water returns to Earth's surface as ________. C) ion

Page Ref: D) prokaryotes

 

101)Genetic engineering is any process whereby scientists directly manipulate genetic material in the lab by adding, deleting, or changing segments of its DNA. The proponents of GM crops stress that we have been influencing the genetic makeup of our livestock and crop plants for thousands of years through artificial selection. However, critics point out that the new techniques differ from traditional breeding techniques because they mix species, create species in the lab not the field, and deal with novel gene combinations not possible in nature. The political debate involves labeling and the individual's right to know what is in the food they consume. Industry has a large financial stake in seeing the continued use of GM foods. Critics argue that we should adopt the precautionary principle with GM foods.

 

102)Ecosystem goods are goods produced by ecosystems and harvested by human populations including items such as wood and fur. Services are functions such as CO2 production and water purification performed by the environment that keep humans alive. Nonmarket values are values that are not usually included in the price of a good or service. They are an assessment of the true costs and benefits of natural systems and reflect the ecosystem goods and services that are not included in the price of an item. Nonmarket values can be calculated by surveying people and asking them how much, monetarily, a particular natural resource, or an ecosystem good or service, is worth to them. Critics, however, find that such surveying results in overestimation of the value of natural resources to human populations, as the prices assigned to natural resource are often not what individuals would be willing to pay.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

103)The degree of harm a substance can inflict A) toxicity

Page Ref: B) chronic

 

104)Dose-response curves are produced by giving toxicants to lab animals or other human model systems and measuring how much effect they produce at different doses. The data are plotted on a graph. Once data are plotted, scientists extrapolate downward to estimate the effects of lower doses on a large population of animals. The numbers are then extrapolated to estimate the effect on humans.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

105)Movement of individuals into a population A) emigration

Page Ref: B) immigration

 

106)biogeochemical

 

107)Leopold enlarged the idea of community to include "the land," encompassing soils, waters, plants, and animals.

 

108)Administrative agencies

 

109)Rates of birth, death, immigration, and emigration.

 

110)zero-till, no-till, zero-tillage

 

111)Invention of synthetic ammonia; modern Midwestern farm practices; global nitrogen cycle thrown out of balance

 

112)speciation; extinction

 

113)by-catch

 

114) irrigation

 

115)ecosystem services

 

116)FALSE

 

117)Fishermen have been traveling farther and fishing longer to obtain the same number of fish. Technological advances have also improved fishing efficiency.

 

118)air pollution

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

119)The world's largest aquifer is the A) Okabogee aquifer

Page Ref:

B)Ogallala aquifer

 

120)FALSE

 

121)Exponential growth is growth when there are no constraints. This occurs when a population is small and environmental conditions are ideal for the organism in question. Mold on a piece of bread or bacteria colonizing a dead animal are examples. Logistic growth rises sharply at first, and then begins to level off as the effects of limiting factors become stronger. A population introduced into a new environment where there are other organisms will reach limitations quickly, and these limitations will limit the population growth.

 

122)Flooding is a normal natural process during times of high water due to snowmelt or heavy rain, and floodwaters carry nutritive sediments and spread them over large areas of the floodplain.

 

123)External costs involve the negative effects of economic activities, such as pollution and human health problems, that are borne by people other than the buyer or seller.

 

124)The objectives of the Montreal Protocol were to alter use of CFCs as they were contributing to a growing ozone hole that would increase the probabilities of getting skin cancer. The world community came together in 1987 to craft the Montreal Protocol, which has now been signed by over 180 nations. In this convention, nations agreed to cut CFC production in half. Today the production and use of ozone-depleting compounds has fallen 95% since the late 1980s, and scientists can discern the beginnings of long-term recovery of the ozone layer. For these reasons, the Montreal Protocol and its follow up amendments are widely considered the most spectacular success story so far in addressing any global environmental problem.

 

125)FALSE

 

126)It is the sum total of all organisms in an area, taking into account the diversity of species, their genes, their populations, and their communities.

 

127)eutrophication

 

128)soil profile

 

129)This strategy uses the natural enemies of crop pests rather than chemicals to control pest densities. An organism that eats a crop pest is released into a crop; the organism then eats the crop pest, thereby decreasing the density of the crop pest without chemicals.

 

130)environment

 

131)This theory was initially applied to oceanic islands to explain how species come to be distributed among them. Since then, researchers have increasingly applied the theory's tenets to other types of islands, including terrestrial habitat islands. Several patterns are apparent from the theory of island biogeography and the real-life study of species on islands. One is that the number of species increases with the size of the island. Larger islands possess more species in part because more space allows for larger populations, and larger populations are less vulnerable to extirpation and thus have longer expected species survival times. Larger islands also present fatter targets for organisms to encounter if they are wandering lost. Finally, larger islands also may possess more habitats than smaller islands. The distance between an island and the nearest continent also affects species number on the island. These patterns hold up for terrestrial habitat islands, such as forests fragmented by logging and road building. Small islands of forest lose their diversity fastest, starting with those large species that were few in number to begin with. In a landscape of fragmented habitat, species requiring the habitat will gradually disappear from the landscape, winking out from one island after another over time.

 

132)The three major trophic levels are producer, consumer, and decomposer. Producers include green plants and chemo- and photosynthetic bacteria. All organisms in this level are autotrophs. The next level, consumers, includes herbivores as primary consumers and carnivores as secondary and tertiary consumers. All organisms at this level are heterotrophs. The final level includes the decomposers, specifically all detritivores, and decomposing bacteria, and fungi. These are all heterotrophs. Producers are the most important as they provide the basis for consumption of all other levels; the decomposers are next as they recycle nutrients to the producers. The consumers are the least important but do play an important role in speeding recycling to the producers.

 

133)Habitat selection is when an organism selects a habitat to live in from among the range of options they encounter. Criteria differ among organisms. For soil organisms, for example, chemistry may be important, for a squirrel, tree density might be important.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

134)A group of populations of organisms that live in the same place at the same time

Page Ref:

A)

B)

community

weight pyramid

 

135)TRUE

 

136)Autotrophs are primary producers that can produce their own source of energy (food). Heterotrophs are organisms that consume other organisms to obtain their energy. Autotrophs include plants and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs include fungi and animals.

 

137)ectoparasites

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

138)Number of individuals within a population per unit area A) population density

Page Ref: B) population size

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

139)Any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block flow A) dam

Page Ref: B) benthic

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

140)Maximum population size that a given environment can sustain A) carrying capacity

Page Ref: B) pre-industrial stage

 

141)global warming

 

142)Students should discuss some of the following: Farmers can use technology to improve efficiency in a number of ways, including lining irrigation canals to prevent leaks and leveling fields to minimize runoff. Furthermore, some methods of applying irrigation water are more efficient than others. We can increase irrigation efficiency by using low-pressure spray irrigation that sprays water downward toward plants and by using drip irrigation systems that target individual plants and introduce water directly onto the soil. Both methods reduce the amount of water lost to evaporation and surface runoff. In addition, choosing crops to match the land and climate in which they are being farmed can save huge amounts of water. Presently, crops that require a great deal of water, such as cotton, rice, and alfalfa, are often planted in hot and arid areas where irrigation is government subsidized so that the true cost of water is not part of the costs of growing the crop. Eliminating subsidies and growing crops in climates that provide adequate rainfall could greatly reduce water use in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic modification of crops is resulting in some varieties that require less water.

 

143)TRUE

 

144)FALSE

 

145)Certain areas bear far more environmental impact than others.

 

146)TRUE

 

147)TRUE

 

148)Endocrine disruptors are toxicants that interfere with the endocrine system. The 1996 publication of the book Our Stolen Future first highlighted the impact of synthetic chemicals on the hormones in animals. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the body and stimulate growth development sexual maturity, and regulate brain function, appetite, sexual drive, and many other aspects of physiology and behavior. Hormone-disrupting toxicants can affect an animal's system in various ways, including blocking the action of hormones or accelerating their breakdown. The result is change in growth or sexual function.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

149)A measure of the density of suspended particles in a water supply A) hard water

Page Ref: B) turbidity

 

150)TRUE

 

151)Neolithic revolutiontransition from hunter gatherer lifestyle to agricultural lifestyle.

Industrial revolutionshifts from rural life, animal-powered agriculture, and manufacture by craftsmen to an urban society powered by fossil fuels like coal and oil.

Students should describe the benefits and problems associated with each revolution.

 

152)Many pregnant women were selectively aborting female fetuses because of the value placed on male children.

 

153)In discounting, short-term costs and benefits are granted more importance than long-term costs and benefits causing policy to play down long-term consequences of decisions we make today.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

154)A social system that converts resources into goods A) capitalist market economy

Page Ref: B) economy

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

155)Average number of children born per female member of population over her lifetime.

Page Ref:

A)

B)

total fertility rate

mortality rate

 

156)Make Observations Ask questions Develop hypotheses Make predictions Test predictions Analyze and interpret results Students should offer a one-sentence descriptions of these tasks. All steps are important to repeat. The scientific method is a systematic approach to gathering information about and testing our understanding of the world.

 

157)The green revolution was an intensification of the changes brought by the industrialization of agriculture, a change in agricultural practices that dramatically increased the crops per acre of farmland between 1950 and the 21st century. New practices involved devoting large areas of identical crops specially bred for high yields and rapid growth; heavy use of pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation water; and sowing and harvesting on the same piece of land more than once per year or once per season. In developing countries, this greatly increased agricultural production. Environmentally, this was positive because it decreased the need for new areas for cultivation and reduced rates of deforestation. Unfortunately, it also increased the use of water, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and fossil fuels, increasing pollution, salinization, and desertification.

 

158)FALSE

 

159)science

 

160)TRUE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

161)Average number of years that a person can expect to live from birth A) population density

Page Ref: B) life expectancy

 

162)When one organism ingests a toxicant, the toxicant becomes concentrated within its tissues. When the next organism feeds, it eats multiple organisms at the lower trophic level, consuming quantities of toxin with each feeding. Thus with every step up the food chain from primary producer to top predator, concentrations of toxicant increase.

 

163)contraceptives, education or education and family planning

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

164)Smallest components of an element that maintain the chemical properties of that element

Page Ref:

A)

B)

atoms

isotopes

 

165)desalinization

 

166)Limiting factors are physical chemical and biological characteristics of the environment that restrain population growth. The interaction of all the limiting factors determines the carrying capacity, or maximum population size for a given species that a given environment can sustain. Because limiting factors can be numerous, and because environments are complex and ever-changing, carrying capacities can change.

 

167)Students should discuss some of the following: Oceans have long been made a sink for human wastes. Even into the mid-20th century, it was common for coastal cities in the United States to dump trash and pump untreated sewage onto mudflats and into embayments. Coastal dumping practices have left a toxic legacy around the United States, but marine pollution continues even today. Oil, plastic, industrial chemicals, sewage sludge, excess nutrients, abandoned fishing gear, all eventually make their way into the oceans. Pollutants, such as additions of crude oil to the oceans, are also a problem. The majority of oil pollution in the oceans comes not from large spills but from cumulative small sources, including leakage from small boats and runoff from human activities on land. In addition, the amount of petroleum spilled into the oceans each year is equaled by the amount that seeps into the water from naturally occurring seafloor deposits. Pollution from petroleum products is extremely detrimental to the marine environment and the human economies that draw sustenance from that environment. Petroleum can physically coat and kill intertidal and free-swimming marine organisms, and ingested chemical components in petroleum can poison marine life. Plastic bags and bottles, fishing nets, gloves, fishing line, buckets, floats, abandoned cargo, and nearly everything else that humans transport on the sea or dispose into it can present problems for marine organisms and for people who depend upon the sea. Because most plastic is not biodegradable, it can drift for decades before washing up on beaches. Some marine animals, including seabirds, fish, and endangered sea turtles, can mistake floating plastic debris for food (such as mistaking clear plastic for jellyfish), and many die as a result. Artificial pollution from fertilizer runoff or other nutrient inputs can also have dire effects on marine ecosystems, as we saw with the Gulf of Mexico's dead zone. The release of excess nutrients into surface waters can spur unusually high growth rates and population densities of phytoplankton, causing eutrophication, in either freshwater or saltwater ecosystems.

 

168)Students should discuss some of the following: Use of low-toxicity material and adequate ventilation are key to alleviating indoor air pollution in almost any situation. Using materials that are nontoxic and making sure the indoor environment minimizes exposure to trapped air are crucial. In the developed world, limiting use of plastics and treated wood where possible, and limiting exposure to certain products by keeping pesticides, cleaning fluids, and other known toxicants in a garage or outdoor shed rather than in the house are important. Other solutions include getting homes and offices tested for radon and keeping indoor spaces as well ventilated as possible so that concentrations of chronic contaminants can be minimized. Remedies for fuelwood pollution in the developing world include drying wood before burning (which reduces the amount of smoke produced), shifting to less-polluting fuels (such as from biomass fuels to fossil fuels like natural gas), and replacing inefficient fires with cleaner stoves that burn fuel more efficiently. Increasing ventilation by installing hoods, chimneys, or cooking windows can also be accomplished inexpensively and can alleviate the majority of indoor smoke pollution.

 

169)TRUE

 

170)The manipulative experiment is one in which the researcher chooses and manipulates the independent variable, and a natural experiment is one in which the researcher records data from variables that have not been manipulated, such as weights of all organisms currently on an island.

 

171)cell

 

172)A variety of abiotic factors including temperature, precipitation, atmospheric circulation, and soil characteristics, of which temperature and precipitation exert the greatest influence on biomes.

 

173)Environmental problems, by their nature, often are not limited to the bounds of particular countries. International law is an important part of solving such transboundary problems. Creative agreements hammered out after a lot of hard work and diplomacy will work better for solving environmental problems. The United Nations, the World Bank, and a wide variety of nongovernmental organizations are key to international law. Conventional law arises from conventions or treaties that nations agree to enter into. Customary law arises from long-standing practices or customs.

 

174)environmental health

 

175)In developing countries, wood or charcoal is burned in residences with little or no ventilation. In contrast, in developed countries a large amount of indoor pollution comes from synthetic chemicals used for cleaning or pesticides or in manufacturing of furniture or electronics.

 

176)phylogenetic tree

 

177)FALSE

 

178)Environmental protection is good for economics. Environment and economy are intricately linked through the resources that the environment provides. The old school made the environment a subset of human economy. The new school views the economy as coupled to the nonhuman environment.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

179)Green house gas produced within the digestive tract of cattle A) relative humidity

Page Ref: B) methane

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

180)Chemicals that cause harm to unborn young inside a mother's body are called

Page Ref:

A)

B)

teratogens

mutagens

 

181)TRUE

 

182)A correlation is a relationship between two variables, and causation is when there is demonstration that one variable causes another to change. Causation is stronger evidence to support a hypothesis.

 

183)TRUE

 

184)A pest is any organism that damages crops that are valuable to us. A weed is any organism that competes with our crops. The definitions are subjective because they are defined by our economic interest.

 

185)TRUE

 

186)The Endangered Species Act is the primary legislation for protecting biodiversity in the United States. It forbids the government and private citizens from taking actions (such as developing land) that would destroy endangered species or their habitats and also forbids trade in products made from endangered species. The aim is to prevent extinctions, stabilize declining populations, and, when possible, enable populations to recover to the point they no longer need protection. The ESA has had a number of notable successes. Following the banning of DDT and years of management programs, birds like the peregrine falcon, brown pelican, and bald eagle have recovered and been taken off the endangered list. Intensive management efforts with other species like the red-cockaded woodpecker have held formerly declining populations steady in the face of continued habitat degradation. Roughly 40% of declining populations have been held stable. While most Americans support endangered species protection, some have vocally opposed provisions of the ESA. Some of the resentment results from the perception that the ESA is focused only on single species and values the life of an endangered species over the life or livelihood of a person. Most popular resentment toward the ESA, however, has stemmed from worries of landowners that federal officials will restrict the use of private land if threatened or endangered species are found on it.

 

187)A subsidy is a government giveaway of publicly owned resources, a give away of cash, or tax break, intended to encourage certain activities while discouraging others. Subsidies can be used to promote sustainable activities, although more often they are not used that way.

 

188)Tigers were originally part of the cultural fabric of the indigenous people of the Russian Far East. When the Russians invaded, they had no cultural traditions and hunted tigers to near extinction. The involvement of conservation groups may alter population dynamics of the tiger. The lesson is that humans must value biodiversity, or it will be lost.

 

189)TRUE

 

190)The most rigorous human carrying capacity estimates range from 12 billion people living prosperously in a healthy environment to 33 billion living in poverty in an environment fully in intensive cultivation without natural areas.

 

191)latitudinal gradient

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

192)An organism that transfers a pathogen to a host A) vector

Page Ref: B) tumerous

 

193)FALSE

 

194)Sustainable agriculture is agriculture that does not deplete soils faster than they form. It is farming and ranching that does not reduce the amount of healthy soil, clean water, and genetic diversity essential to long-term crop and livestock production.

 

195)Carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter

 

196)They involve large-scale comparisons among groups of people, usually contrasting a group known to have been exposed to a toxicant with a group that has not. When a group exposed to an agent shows a significantly greater degree of harm, it suggests that the agent may be responsible.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

197)Water with high concentrations of calcium and magnesium irons A) soft water

Page Ref: B) hard water

 

198)There are two main steps. The first is determining whether a substance has toxic effects and measuring dose-response effects of toxicant exposure. The second step is assessing the likely exposure that an individual will have to the toxicant including frequency, concentration, and time of exposure.

 

199)Extinction is a common consequence of human disturbance to natural ecosystems. The chance find of the golden toad just before it disappeared suggests many species go extinct before we notice them.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

200)Stage of declining death rates due to high food production and medical care

Page Ref:

A)

B)

post-industrial stage

transitional stage

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

201)A human-centered view of our relationship with the environment A) ecocentric

Page Ref: B) anthropocentric

 

202)Modeling, ice cores, and direct measurement of greenhouse gases are ways of studying climate change.

 

203)TRUE

 

204)The origin of energy for living organisms is the sun, and plants get their energy through photosynthesis.

 

205)China's burgeoning population and its industrial and agricultural development were eroding the nation's soils, depleting its water, leveling its forests, and polluting its air. The government decided to institute a population control program that precluded large numbers of Chinese couples from having more than one child. Social stigma and a system of rewards and punishments were used to enforce the one-child limit. The policy is controversial because it limits personal freedom to decide the number of children that a person may have.

 

206)Plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and then incorporate the carbon into their tissue. Animals then eat plants and gain carbon. When animals and plants die, the tissues are eaten by decomposers and are then deposited into soils. At each stage along the way, carbon is released back to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The use of fossil fuels (previously undecomposed organic materials) causes stored carbon dioxide to be released to the atmosphere. This is occurring at very high rates and is believed to contribute to global warming.

 

207)tides

 

208)consumptive

 

209)A system's output can serve as input to that same system, a circular process described as a feedback loop. In a negative feedback loop, output of one type acts as input that moves the system in the other direction. The output and input essentially neutralize one another, stabilizing the system. An example would be the regulation of our body temperature. Negative feedback loops are relatively common in nature. In a positive feedback loop, inputs don't stabilize a system but drive them further toward one extreme or another. An example of this process in natural systems is erosion. Positive feedback loops are relatively rare in nature but are common in natural systems altered by human actions.

 

210)organic agriculture

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

211)Toxicants that cause cancer A) carcinogens

Page Ref:

B)antigens

 

212)Montreal Protocol

 

213)The first is by mimicking the hydrologic cycle, by containing ocean water, hastening evaporation with heat and then condensing the vapor, in essence distilling for fresh water. Another method involves forcing water through membranes to filter out salts, the most common process of which is reverse osmosis.

 

214) theory

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

215)Specific rules based on more broadly written law passed by Congress A) treaties

Page Ref: B) regulation

 

216)ecological footprint

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

217)An organism that contains DNA from another species A) profile

Page Ref: B) transgenic

218)The process in which material is removed from one place and transported to another by wind and water. C)

D)

waterlogging

erosion

Page Ref:

 

219)An adaptive trait is a characteristic that leads to increasing success for an organism in a given environment.

 

220)Without these chemicals, we would not have the industrial agriculture that produces our food, many of the medical advances that protect our health and prolong our lives, and modern materials and conveniences.

 

221)TRUE

 

222)People are not distributed across the globe in accordance with water availability, and areas that are dense with people are often water-poor, leading to inequalities in per-capita water resources among and within nations.

 

223)Light energy is converted into chemical energy, or glucose, through the process called photosynthesis. In cellular respiration, chemical energy is released as kinetic energy to fuel organisms. Autotrophs do both cellular respiration and photosynthesis, and heterotrophs do only cellular respiration.

 

224)Students should discuss some of the following: The reservoir will hold over 10 trillion gallons of water. It will generate hydroelectric power, enable boats and barges to travel farther upstream, and provide flood control. The power generation may be enough to replace dozens of large coal or nuclear plants. One of the costs of the Three Gorges Dam, aside from its $25 billion construction price tag, is that its reservoir will flood 22 cities and the homes of 1.13 million people, requiring the largest-ever resettlement project. The reservoir behind the dam will also inundate archaeological sites 10,000 years old and will submerge productive farmlands and wildlife habitat. In addition, critics hold, the reservoir will slow the flow of the river so much that suspended sediment will settle and begin to fill the reservoir as soon as it is completed. Other scientists worry about water quality, saying that the Yangtze's many pollutants will be trapped in the reservoir, making the water even more undrinkable than it is already. Indeed, high levels of bacteria were found in the water as it began building up behind the dam, but the government plans to sink $5 billion into building hundreds of sewage treatment and waste disposal facilities.

 

225)FALSE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

226)Porous, spongelike layers of rock, sand, or gravel that are capable of holding water

Page Ref:

A)

B)

aqueduct

aquifer

 

227)Homesteaders cultivated the native prairies of the Great Plains of the United States. In this area, prairie grasses had prevented erosion. Farmers planted wheat and raised cattle. In the early 1930s, a drought exacerbated the ongoing impact of humans on soils and resulted in wind erosion of millions of tons of topsoil. Impacts of soil entrained in the atmosphere were detected as far away as New York, where black snow and rain fell. In response, the U.S. government, along with the state and local governments, increased support of research into soil conservation measures. Congress passed the Soil Conservation Act that established the Soil Conservation Service.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

228)High exposure to a chemical over a short period of time A) acute

Page Ref: B) degree

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

229)Stabilizes a population at its carrying capacity A) environmental resistance

Page Ref: B) exponential growth

 

230)FALSE

 

231)TRUE

 

232)The quantitative measurement of risk and the comparison of risks involved in different activities or substances is termed risk assessment. Accurate risk assessment consists of decisions and strategies to minimize risk. Federal agencies are charged with accessing risk and considering findings in light of economic, social, and political needs and values. The costs and benefits of addressing risk in various ways are addressed with regard to both scientific and nonscientific concerns. While economic benefits are generally known, easily quantified, and of a definite and stable amount, health risks are hard-to-measure probabilities that impact a small percentage of people that will suffer greatly.

 

233)demography

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

234)The generation of new species A) species diversity

Page Ref:

B)speciation

 

235)food security

 

236)emigration

 

237)Environmental contaminants mimic hormones and interfere with the functioning of the animal endocrine (hormone) systems. The alligator endocrine systems were disrupted during development in the egg.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

238)Alternating bands of different types of vegetation planted across a slope A) strip-cropping

Page Ref: B) aquaculture

 

239)Ecology and economics come from the same Greek root oikos, meaning household and in its broadest context, the human household, Earth itself. Economists study the household of human society, and ecologists study the broader household of all life.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

240)Specific statements that can be directly and unequivocally tested A) prediction

Page Ref: B) hypothesis

 

241)The full equation is I= Px A T. The terms are as follows: I= total impact on the environment by humans; P= population; A= Affluence; T= technology. Population and affluence increase environmental impact, technology may either reduce or exacerbate overall impact, depending on what technologies we develop and how we employ them. The fourth factor that could be added is S for sensitivity, to denote how sensitive a given environment is to these pressures.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

242)The oldest type of survival economy A) subsistence economy

Page Ref:

B)steady-state economy

 

243)They study population size, density, distribution, age structure, sex ratio, and rates of birth, death, immigration, and emigration of humans.

 

244)adaptive radiation

 

245)FALSE

 

246)Water temperature, salinity, dissolved nutrients, wave action, currents, depth, and type of substrate (sandy, muddy, rocky bottom, etc.).

 

247)Renewable resources are virtually unlimited (sunlight) or are replenished over relatively short periods of time (plants). Nonrenewable natural resources (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) are in limited supply and are not replenished or are formed much more slowly than we use them.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

248)Early environmental laws that gave federal government the right to manage

Page Ref:

A)

B)

General Land Ordinances

Western Merit Law

 

249)Pinchot was instrumental in the development of the conservation ethic. This ethic suggested that natural resources not only be put to use but put to use wisely. The best use of resources would provide the greatest good to the greatest number of people for the longest time. In contrast, Muir espoused the "preservation ethic" that required preservation of natural environment in a pristine, unaltered state. The preservation ethic, however, is not as practical as the conservation ethic, especially in the face of globalization.

 

250)Students should discuss some of the following. Extinction is a natural process. Extinction rates have risen higher than the background extinction rate during several mass extinction events during Earth's history. Since 440 million years ago, there have been five major episodes of mass extinction. If current trends continue, the modern era may see the extinction of more than half of all species. While similar in scale to previous mass extinctions, today's ongoing mass extinction is different in two primary respects. First, humans are causing it. Second, humans will suffer as a result of it.

 

251)symbioses

 

252)TRUE

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

253)Lands used for grazing livestock A) shelterbelts

Page Ref:

B)rangeland

 

254)conservation biology.

 

255)Silent Spring

 

256)hypoxia

 

257)One reason is that some areas of Earth remain little explored. Another is that many species are tiny and easily overlooked. In addition, many organisms are difficult to identify

 

258)Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field because it involves techniques from numerous, more traditional fields of study.

 

259)There are numerous practices used by farmers to protect their soils. Crop rotation, which is alternating the kind of crop grown in an area, can return nutrients to the soil and represents an alternative to letting fields lie fallow, which can expose soils to erosion. Contour farming protects soils against erosion by shaping agricultural fields in a manner that decreases the water running down a hillside. Intercropping is the planting of two types of vegetation in the same field either overlapping or in alternating rows. It provides a more complete land cover by decreasing bare areas between rows. Shelterbelts provide windbreaks that slow ground wind speed across a field. No-till or conservation tillage decreases the plowing of soil and provides less exposure of soils to wind and water for erosion.

 

260)Habitat alteration, Invasive species, Pollution, Population, and Overexploitation

 

261)experiment; variables

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

262)Marine habitats that occur between the ocean's surface and floor A) littoral

Page Ref: B) pelagic

 

263)TRUE

 

264)Electricity generation; transportation

 

265)TRUE

 

266)FALSE

 

267)Environmental health assesses environmental factors that influence human health and quality of life and seeks to prevent adverse effects on human health and on ecological systems essential to environmental quality and long-term human well-being. Outdoor health issues include pollutants, pesticides, and any variety of other toxic chemical that are found outdoors. Radon, asbestos, and lead paint are all examples of indoor environmental health hazards.

 

268)Carbohydrates are made of carbon and hydrogen molecules. They are used as energy molecules and to build cell walls. Proteins are made of chains of amino acids. They are enzymes and produce tissues and provide structural support. Nucleic acids are made of chains of nucleotides (phosphate groups, sugars, and a nitrogenous base). They are the genetic material that passes traits from generation to generation. Lipids are molecules classed together because they do not dissolve in water. They include molecules such as waxes used for structure, fats and oils used for energy storage, membranes used to delimit cells, and steroids for hormone production.

 

Match the word on the right to the phrase on the left. Each term may be used only once.

 

269)The cumulative total of living things on Earth and the areas living things inhabit

Page Ref:

A)

B)

population

biosphere

 

270)For decades, fisheries management has been based on scientific assessments and has sought to ensure sustainable harvests. Historically, fisheries managers have studied fish population biology and used that knowledge to regulate the timing of harvests, the techniques used to catch fish, and the scale of the harvest. The goal was to allow for maximal harvests of particular populations while keeping fish available for the future, a concept called maximum sustainable yield. If data indicated that current yields looked unsustainable, managers might limit the number or total mass of that fish species that could be harvested, or might restrict the type of gear fishermen can use. Numerous marine scientists and some managers now suggest a shift away from management of individual fish species and toward viewing marine resources as elements of larger ecological systems. This means considering the effects of fishing practices on habitat quality, on interspecific interactions, and on other ecological factors that may have indirect or long-term effects on populations.

 

271)Environmental science is the pursuit of knowledge about the workings of the environment and our interactions with it, while environmentalism is a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural environment and, by extension, humans, from undesirable changes to the environment brought about by certain human choices and actions. Environmental scientists and environmentalists study the same issues, but environmental scientists use an objective scientific approach to understanding environmental problems, whereas environmentalists attempt to alter the political and social understanding of environmental problems.

 

272)monoculture

 

273)point source

 

274)toxicology